Location: on the Central-Western part of Romania, on the middle course of Mures River;
Neighbours: in North – the county of Cluj; in North – the counties of Bihor and Arad; in South-West – the county of la Hunedoara; in South – the county of Valcea; in East – the county of Sibiu; in North-East – the county of Mures;
Surface: 6.242 km2 (respectively 2.6 % out of the country territory);
Population: 382.700 inhabitants;
The access in Alba County is made by car using two main roads: DN 1: Bucharest – Brasov – Sibiu – Sebes – Cluj-Napoca – Oradea and DN 7: Bucharest – Pitesti – Sibiu – Sebes – Deva – Arad. Other national roads that cross the county are: DN 74: Brad – Abrud – Alba Iulia, in connection with the region of Zarand Country, DN 75: Lunca – Campeni – Turda, DN 74A: Abrud – Campeni, DN 14B: Copsa Mica – Blaj – Teius and DN 67C: Novaci – Oasa – Sugag – Sebes.
Cities: ALBA IULIA – county seat (with 66.400 inhabitants, located on an altitude of 220-250 m, in the Western part of the Apuseni Mountains, where the Ampoi meets the Mures); Abrud; Aiud; Baia de Aries; Blaj; Cimpeni; Cugir; Ocna Mures; Sebes; Teius; Zlatna.
Communes: Albac, Almasu Mare, Arieseni, Avram Iancu, Berghin, Bistra, Bucerdea Granoasa, Blandiana, Bucium, Cenade, Cergau, Ceru Bacainti, Cetatea de Balta, Cilnic, Ciugud, Ciuruleasa, Craciunelu de Jos, Cricau, Cut, Daia Romana, Dostat, Farau, Galda de Jos, Garbova, Garda de Sus, Hoparta, Horea, Ighiu, Intregalde, Jidvei, Livezile, Lopadea Noua, Lunca Muresului, Lupsa, Metes, Mihalt, Miraslau, Mogos, Noslac, Ocolis, Ohaba, Pianu, Poiana Vadului, Ponor, Posaga, Radesti, Ramet, Rimetea, Rosia de Secas, Rosia Montana, Salciua, Salistea, Sasciori, Scarisoara, Sincel, Sintimbru, Sohodol, Sibot, Sona, Spring, Stremt, Sugag, Unirea, Vadu Motilor, Valea Lunga, Vidra, Vintu de Jos.
Relief: is structured on three important natural units:
- the Apuseni Mountains, located in the North-Western part, they comprise the Bihor Mountains (the edge of Curcubata 1849 m) with the massif Gaina (1486 m), the Big Mountain, the Metalliferous Mountains, the Trascau Mountains, and the Wind Munceii.
- the Meridional Carpathian on the South represented by the Sureanu (Sebesul) Mountains with the Edge of Patru 2130 m and, partially, the Cindrelul Mountains.
- the Transylvania Plateau on the East, with its sub-unities of Tarnave, Mahaceni and Secase.
The Apuseni Mountains are separated from the other units by the Mures Couloir that represents a contact unit.
Climate: with a continental character it fluctuates according to the relief units, subsuming 2 important sectors: the mountain areas that register a cold and rainier climate, and the hills area that is hotter and drier;
Hydrographical network: entirely belongs to the basin of the Mures River, with its tributary streams, on the right: Aries, Aiud, Geoagiu, Galda and Ampoi, and on the left: Tarnava, Sebes, Pian and Cugir.
The lacks represent a part of the water provision quartered in the natural lacks of: Sureanu Tarn, Carpa little Tarn, and Ighiel Tarn, but also in the anthropic ones, around Rosia Montana or on the Sebes Valley.
Natural Reservations: due to the diversity of its relief, Alba County is one of the Romanian counties that can be proud of its dower of rich picturesque landscapes, which harmoniously interlace with humanised landscapes. In order to be protected, some of them were declared natural reservations, and the most important are:
- spelean: the cave of Scarisoara Glacier, Pojarul Politei, Poarta lui Ionele, Vartop Glacier, Coiba Mare, Hodobana, Huda lui Papara;
- geological: limestone clips of Ampoita Stones, Corbul Stone, the Limestones of Little Valley, Boul Stone, Bulbuci stone, Detunatele;
- palaeontological: the Hill with shell snails, the limestones of Garbova de Sus;
- botanic: Scarita-Belioara, Daffodils Glade of Negrileasa, , Daffodils Glade of Tecsesti;
- geo-morphologic: Rapa Rosie;
- complex: Clefs of Intregalde, of Ramet, Manastirea, Ampoita, Aiud, Sureanu Tarn, Ighiel tarn.